When Vector computing is mentioned, the first company that comes to mind is Cray. Cray was the leading designer and builder of vector supercomputers since the 1970’s. Vector computing is a bit different then general purpose computing. Simply put, a vector computer is designed to perform an instruction on a large set of data at the same time. Such vector support has been added to x86 (in the form of SSE) as well as the PowerPC architecture (AltiVec) but they were not originally designed as such. Cray however, is not the only such company. In 1983 NEC announced the SX architecture. The SX-1/2 operated at up to 1.3 GFLOPs and supported 256MB of RAM per processor. By 2001 with the SX-5 and SX-6 performance had increased to 8 GFLOPS and supported 8GB of RAM per CPU. For a short while Cray themselves marketed and sold NEC SX computers. Each of the processors, from SX-1 to the SX-9 was a single core processor, but with the SX-ACE, that changed.
Now available at The CPU Shack are the Z80 and i8085 Expansion boards for the MCS-80 test boards. The i8085 and Z80 expansion tools allow the MCS-80 test-board to test the function of Intel 8085 (and compatible) or Z80 (and compatible) CPUs. The test tools are connected via the ZIF socket for the i8080 CPU and into the 3×16 pin header connectors of the MCS-80 test-board. There is no need to modify or replace anything on MCS-80 test-board.
This is possible because both the Z80 and i8085 CPUs are based on the Intel 8080 processor. The 8085 is nearly the same as the 8080 from a software point of view, Intel just greatly simplified the hardware required to support it.
They are currently available for $29.95 each shipped.
In the previous post the TI TMS/SBP9900 was covered, as well as its successor the SBP9989. The 9989 was to be replaced by the 9989E, a 50% shrink to 2.2u. This was never released, but TI did continue to develop the bipolar line of the 9900s. After canceling (or perhaps just renaming?) the 9989E/9990 TI announced the SBR9000 in 1985. The SBR9000 was a hi-speed 9989 successor fab’d on a 2 micron I2L process and clocked at 9MHz (twice the speed of the 9989). The change in prefix from SBP to SBR hints at another feature, while the SBP9989 was a MIL-STD-883 rated part, the SBR9000 (and its peripherals) were designed for very high radiation tolerance. The SBR9000 was spec’d to have a total dose tolerance of 1 MegaRad (it should be noted that around 10 krads proves fatal to the average person).
The part number of this example, RAY9000C-X is a bit mysterious but there are some strong clues as to its being a prototype of the canceled SBR9000. First of course is the 64-pin CDIP package, conveniently having 4 ground pins marked. Pins 1,2,27 and 28 are the ground pins on all SBP9900/9989 devices. The SBR was to be pin compatible so has the same ground pins. The date on the back of the RAY9000 is 8525, the SBP9900 was out of production in 1983 so that rules it out, leaving either a 9989, or the most likely, a sample of a SBR9000. Why TI canceled the SBR9000 remains a mystery, perhaps they found the 9989 to be adequate for their customers needs, as it continued to be produced into the 1990’s.
In June 1976 TI released the TMS9900 16-bit processor. This was one of the very first 16-bit single chip processor designs, though it took a while to catch on. This is no fault of its own, but rather TI’s failure to market it as such. The 9900 is a single chip implementation of the TI 990 series mini-computers. It was meant to be a low end product and thus was not particularly well supported by TI, who did not want to cut into the higher margins of their mini-computer line. By the late 1970’s TI began to see the possibilities of the 9900 as a general purpose processor and began supporting it with development systems, support chips, and better documentation. If TI had marketed and supported the 9900 from its release the microprocessor market very much may have turned out a bit different. A large portion of Intel’s success (with the 808x) was not due to a good design, but rather good support and availability.
The original TMS9900 was a 3100 gate (approx 8000 transistors) NMOS design running at up to 3MHz. It required a 4-phase clock and 3 power supplies (5V, 12V, -5V). It had a very orthogonal instruction set that was very memory focused, making it rather easy to program. General purpose registers were stored off chip, with only a PC, Workspace Register (which pointed to wherever the general registers would be) and a Status Register on chip. This made context switching fairly quick and easy. A context switch required saving only 2-3 registers. The 9900 was packaged in a, then uncommon, and expensive, 64 pin DIP. This allowed the full 15-bits of address and 16-bits of data bus to be available.
TI had a trick up their sleeve for the 9900 line…
The CPU Shack is excited to now offer MCS-4 test boards for sale and shipping now. These boards are intended to test Intel 4004 and 4040 processors as well as 4002 RAMs. They can also test National Semiconductor 4004s and 4002s.
Each board runs off of a min-USB connector making it very easy to use. The processors are inserted into easy to use ZIF sockets making testing many different CPUs a snap. I
Head on over to the MCS-4 page to buy yours today!
Hua Ko Electronics was started in 1979 in Hong Kong, though with close ties to the PRC. Their story is a bit more interesting then their products, which were largely second sources of western designs. In 1980 they started a subsidiary in San Jose, CA. This was a design services center mainly ran as a foundry for other companies. They developed mask sets in their CA facility but wafer fab and most assembly was done back in Hong Kong (as well as the Philippines by 1984). Chipex also had a side business, they were illegally copying clients designs and sending them back to the PRC. In addition they were sending proprietary (and restricted) equipment back to Hong Kong and the PRC. in 1982 their San Jose facilities were raided and equipment seized. Several employees were arrested and later charged and convicted. The following investigation showed that the PRC consulate had provided support and guidance for Chipex’s operations and illegal activities. So where exactly did the HKE65SC02 design come from?
In 2005 Sun (now Oracle) began work on a new UltraSPARC,k the Rock, or RK for short. The RK was to introduce several innovative technologies to the SPARC line and would complement the also in development (and still used) T-series. The RK was to support transactional memory, which is a way of handling memory access that more closely resembles database usage (important in the database server market). Greatly simplified, it allows the processor to hold or buffer multiple instruction results (load/stores) as a group, and then write the entire batch to memory once all had finished. The group is a transaction, and thus the result of that transaction is stored atomically, as if it were the result of a single instruction.
The RK also was designed as a 16-core processor, with 4 sets of cores forming a cluster. This is where the definition of a core becomes a source of much debate. Each 4-core cluster shared a single 32KB Instruction cache, a pair of 32KB Data caches, and 2 floating point units (one of which only handled multiplies). This type of arrangement is often called Clustered Multi-threading. Since floating point instructions are not all the common in a database system, it made sense to share the FPU resources amongst multiple ‘cores.’
The RK was designed for a 65nm process with a target frequency of 2.3GHz, while consuming a rather incredible 250W (more power than an entire PC drew on average at the time).
This should sound familiar, as its also the basis of the AMD Bulldozer (and later) cores released in 2011. AMD refers to them as Modules rather then clusters, but the principle is the same. a Module has 2 integer units, each with their own 16K data cache. a 64K instruction cache and a single floating point unit is shared between the two. The third generation (Steamroller) added a second instruction decoder to each module.
The idea of CMT, however, is not new, its roots go all the way back to the Alpha 21264 in 1996, nearly 10 years before the RK. The 21164 had 2 integer ALUs and an FPU (the FPU was technically 2 FPUs, though one only handled FMUL, while the other handled the rest of the FPU instructions) . The integer ALUs each had their own register file and address ALU and each was referred to as a cluster. Today the DEC 21264 could very well have been marketed as a dual core processor.
The SPARC RK turned out to be better on paper then in silicon. In 2009 Oracle purchased Sun and in 2010 the RK was canceled by Larry Ellison. Larry Ellison, never one to mince his words said of the RK: “This processor had two incredible virtues: It was incredibly slow and it consumed vast amounts of energy. It was so hot that they had to put about 12 inches of cooling fans on top of it to cool the processor. It was just madness to continue that project.” While the Rock (lava rock perhaps?) never made it to market, samples were made and tested, and a great deal was learned from it. Certainly experience that made its way into Oracle’s other T-Series processors.
This little chip, dated from 1973, is part of the history of what we are surrounded by, LEDs. And they have an unlikely and somewhat surprising beginning. The MCT2 is an opto-coupler, basically an LED and a phototransistor in a single package, used for isolating digital signals. The important portion here is the LED. LEDs are in nearly every electronic product these days, and this Christmas season we see many Christmas lights that are now LED based. THey are more efficient, and much longer lasting. Certainly the eco-friendly choice for lighting. And they have their roots in a company that does not always elicit an eco-friendly discussion.
That would be Monsanto.
That big ‘M’ on the package is for Monsanto, who from 1968-1979 was the leading supplier of LEDs and opto-electronics. In 1968 there were exactly 2 companies who made visible light LEDs (red), HP and Monsanto, and HP used materials supplied by Monsanto to make theirs.
The roots of TriMedia start in 1987 at Philips with Gerrit Slavenburg (who wrote actual forwards for most of the Datasheets) and Junien Labrousse as the LIFE-1 processor. At its heart it was a 32-bit VLIW (Very Long Instruction Word) processor. VLIW was a rather new concept in the 1980’s, and really didn’t catch on until the late 90’s. Intel’s i860 could run in superscalar, or VLIW mode in 1989 but ended up a bit of a flop. TI made the C6000 lince of the TMS320 DSP which was VLIW based. By far thos most famous, or perhaps infamous, VLIW implementation were the Transmeta, and the Itanium, both of which proved to be less then successful in the long run (though both ended up finding niche markets).
TriMedia, released their first commercial VLIW product in 1997, the TM1000. As the name suggests, TriMedia Processors are media focused. They are based around a general purpose VLIW CPU core, but add audio, video and graphics processing. THe core is decidedly not designed as a standalone processor. It implements most CPU functions but not all, for example, it supports only 32-bit floating point math (rather than full 64 or 80 bit).
The TM-1300 was released in 1999 and featured a clock speed of 166MHz @ 2.0V on a 0.25u process. At 166MHz the TM-1300 consumed about 3.5W, which at the time was relatively low. It had 32K of Instruction Cache and 16K of Data Cache. As is typical of RISC processors the 1300 had 128 general purpose 32-bit registers. The VLIW instruction length allows five simultaneous operations to be issued every clock cycle. These operations can target any five of the 27 functional units in the processor, including integer and floating-point arithmetic units and SIMD units.
The above picture TM-1300 was a marketing sample handed out to the media during the Consumer Electronics Show for the processors release in 1999. It is marked with the base specs of the chip as well as CES SAMPLE. Likely these were pre-production units that didn’t meet spec or failed inspection, remarked for media give-aways.
In the mid-1970’s DEC saw the need for a 32-bit successor to the very popular PDP-11. They developed the VAX (Virtual Address eXtension) as its replacement. Its important to realize that VAX was an architecture first, and not designed from the beginning with a particular technological implementation in mind. This varies considerably from the x86 architecture which initially was designed for the 8086 processor, with its specific technology (NMOS, 40 DIP, etc) in mind. VAX was and is implemented (or emulated as DEC often called it) in many ways, on many technologies. The architecture was largely designed to be programmer centric, writing software for VAX was mean to be rather independent of what it ran on (very much like what x86 has become today).
The first implementation was the VAX 11/780 Star, released in 1977, which was implemented in TTL, and clocked at 5MHz. TTL allowed for higher performance, but at the expense of greater board real estate as well as somewhat less reliability (more IC’s means more failure points). It also cost more, to purchase, to run, and to cool.
DEC followed the Star with the 11/750 Comet in 1980. This was a value version of the Star. It ran at only 3.12MHz (320ns cycle time) but introduced some new technology. Part of the ‘value’ was a much smaller footprint. The TTL had been replaced by bi-polar gate arrays. Over 90% of the VAX architecture was implemented in the gate arrays, and there was a lot of them, 95 in a complete system with the floating point accelerator (28 arrays). The CPU and Memory controller used 55 while the Massbus (I/O) used an additional 12 gate arrays. The 95 gate arrays though replaced hundreds of discrete TTL chips. And as a further simplification they were all the same gate array.