June 13th, 2022 ~ by admin

The History of Angstrem Memory IC’s in the USSR

This article is about memory chips manufactured by one of the entities – the leader of the electronic industry of the USSR – Angstrem. As you know, the Soviet Union ceased to exist in December 1991. We restrict ourselves to the development period of the considered memory chips produced at Angstrem, the end of 1991. Let’s make an attempt to track how the capacity of memory chips grew, how technologies were improved that allowed the Soviet Union not to let the world leaders in electronics go far from itself at that time. A small example: Angstrem’s Dynamic RAM 4K went into mass production in mid-1975, Intel introduced its own in 1974. Intel launched a 16K DRAM in 1977, and Angstrem released its counterpart in 1978.

Angstrem Headquarters

Angstrem was established in June 1963 in Zelenograd (outside of Moscow) as a pilot plant in conjunction with the Scientific Research Institute of Precision Technology. At Angstrem, new technologies for the production of microelectronics were developed, and pilot batches of new microcircuits were also produced. The debugged production technology was then transferred to other enterprises of the USSR and countries of Eastern Europe.
The development and manufacture of memory chips was one of the main activities of Angstrem. It was on them that new semiconductor structures and production technologies were more effectively worked out, and the stability of obtaining finished products is considered in world electronics as a sign of technology ownership. It’s relatively easy to make a small batch of good chips, it’s hard to make a process whereby a large amount of chips can be made and be reliable. It was the very low chip yield percentage that played a cruel joke on Angstrem when mastering the production process of the DRAM 565RU7 chip.


In 1966, Angstrem created the first MOSFET in the USSR, which was the first step towards the strict goal of creating CMOS integrated circuits. The first CMOS microcircuit, created in the Soviet Union in 1971, was the 16-bit Angstrom matrix of memory cells 1YaM881.The supply voltage is 6 volts instead of 5 volts, like the rest of the chips in this series.

1YaM881 – 1972

The next in a series of static RAM chips was the CMOS K561RU2 (K564RU2), released in 1976. 564 series of chips is a “military” analogue of the 561 series. In these series, there are several dozen microcircuits. The chip has an organization of 256 words by 1 bit.

561RU2 die – 16×16 256bit matrix clearly visible – The image is taken from the site https://radiopicture.listbb.ru/ with the permission of the author.

It contains 2067 integral elements. Supply voltage is 3-15 volts. It’s an analogue of CD4061A.  It should be noted that in most cases ‘analogue’ means similar to, not an exact copy or exactly compatible.  The USSR did make some compatible IC’s, but they mostly made stuff that was similar, but built to their own specifications/needs.

K564RU2A -1978

K561RU2 -1979

The package of the K561RU2 chip is wider than the standard packages of this series.

K565RU2 -1979

The K565RU2 static RAM chip was manufactured using NMOS technology. Chip capacity was 1024 bits (1024×1). Contains 7142 integral elements. An analogue of Intel 2102A, developed in 1974. K565RU2 appeared in 1977. It was originally designed to be placed in a ceramic package, but later, in order to reduce the cost of production, the dies began to be packed in plastic packages.

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CPU of the Day

November 22nd, 2016 ~ by admin

More EPROM Die Fun

National 2758 - Intel 2758 (1979) - Intel 2758 (1980)

National 2758 – Intel 2758 (1979) – Intel 2758 (1980) – Click for larger version

Recently I got in some nice 2758 EPROMs.  The 2758 was a 5V 8k EPROM and really the first of the standard EPROMs (with industry standard pinouts, voltages, etc).  The original 2708 required 3 supplies (5V, -5V and 12V) while the 2758 required only +5VDC.  EPROMs are particularly nice as due to the fact that they need a window to allow UV light in for erasure, you can also have a clear shot of the die (in most cases).

Two things caught my eye on these 3 EPROM’s.  First, the National Semiconductor 2758 die looked suspiciously like the Intel die.  This isn’t too unusual as National was one of Intel’s primary second sources throughout the 1970’s.  Intel did not have the best fab’s early on so second sourcing was a must.  As a product of this some strange things happened, such as Intel die’s being in National labeled parts (though the reverse is not known to have happened).

Intel 2758 w/ 2716 die

Intel 2758 w/ 2716 die

The second thing you can see in the picture is the difference in die structure between the otherwise seemingly same Intel 2758’s.  One has bonding wires on all 4 sides, while the second one has bonding wires only on the top and bottom of the die, and a completely different layout to the die.  My first suspicion was that the Intel and National may both be the same die, so I put them on my scanner (I REALLY need  a microscope). At 4800dpi (or 9600dpi on one) you can see that they are in fact different dies, and both are not 2758 dies….

National 2758 also using a 2716 die

National 2758 also using a 2716 die

Both are actual 2716 dies! We saw this several years ago with 2708s being used as 2704’s as well as in Soviet designs.  The third die is a 2716 die as well.  All Intel (and National) did was leave one address line unused (tied to ground in this case).  Its likely these dies had a defect so the affected area was effectively disabled by not using that address line.


C2758 S1865 - Defective 2716 die using only the upper 8k

C2758 S1865 – Defective 2716 die using only the upper 8k

The difference in the Intel dies is also interesting.  Early in the production of the 2716 Intel changed the die layout to increase density. That’s why one die has the bonding wires on all 4 sides and the newer die only on top and bottom (which made assembly faster and more reliable

as well as increasing density).  The 2716 was released BEFORE the 2758, the 2758 being almost an afterthought, it is very likely that ALL 2758 dies are actually 2716 dies, as it would make little sense for Intel to create a separate mask set for a product that was likely to be low volume.  The 2758 data sheet lists pin 19 as AR (Address reference) and specifies it to be driven low, or for the S1865 driven high.  Pin 19 on a 2716 is A10 so AR on the 2758 is simply selecting the lower 8k or for the S1865 the upper 8k.  Being as there was 2 versions of the 2758 using different parts of the die, its clear Intel was using defective 2716 die to make the 2758, at least early on.  Later documentation simply has Pin 19 listed as GND.

As a side note, the CPU Shack REALLY needs a microscope, sorry for the blurry photos from the scanner.


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EPROM of the Day

April 22nd, 2014 ~ by admin

Soviet K573RF23 and the Mark of Quality

Soviet Vostok K573RF23 - 2kx4 - 1984

Soviet Vostok K573RF23 – 2kx4 – 1984

This EPROM, made in November of 1984 at the Soviet Vostok factory in Novosibirsk started life as a 2716 2kx8 EPROM.  A Soviet 2716 would be marked as 573RF2, whereas this particular example is marked 573RF23.  The die is a 2716 that was found to be defective, and thus converted to a  2kx4 EPROM, this is denoted by the adding of the 3 to the part number.  This certainly was not an uncommon procedure, even Intel regularly sold 2708 EPROMs as 2704s, whether to use a die with an imperfection, or to simply meet demand.

There are two other interesting markings on this particular EPROM.  First is the CCCP logo, this is the State Quality Mark of the USSR.  This quality mark was used to signify that products met the following conditions:

  • “meets or exceeds the quality of the best international analogs”,
  • parameters of quality are stable,
  • goods fully satisfy Soviet state standards,
  • goods are compatible with international standards,
  • production of goods is economically effective and
  • they satisfy the demands of the state economy and the population.

Meeting these conditions allowed the factory to sell such devices at a 10% premium.  So not only was Vostok able to pass a defective part as a quality part, they were able to do so and make a bit extra revenue.  Thats something Intel would be quite envious of.

Some references show that 573RF23 as being the equivalent of a 2758 EPROM (5V 2708).  This is in fact incorrect.  A 2716 converted to a 2708 is done so simply by removing a single address line (going from 11 to 10)  The 573RF23 retains 11 address lines, but it removes 4 data lines, thus making it 2kx4, same number of address locations, but each locations contains only 4 bits, vs 8 bits.  Rewiring address lines likely did not allow for a working EPROM due to where the defect was, thus cutting the word size down.  The first condition of the State Quality Mark is that said EPROM should meet or exceed the best international analog.  Intel did not make a 2kx4 EPROM, the closest western analog would be the Harris/Intersil IM6657, though it was made in CMOS, vs the 573RF23s NMOS, so one could say that it was easy to beat a analog that did not exist.

The other mark on this EPROM is OTK, which literally means “Technical Control Department,” in others words this part passed the quality control dept, hopefully after it was converted to the lower capacity device, and them marked with the State Quality Mark.  Perhaps it was the best NMOS 2kx4 EPROM the world was to see, certainly it came in a beautiful package.


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EPROM of the Day

February 12th, 2013 ~ by admin

Reading Mask ROMs – With Python image processing

Mask ROM

Mask ROM

Users of the Python programming language often say it can do anything, and that may just be true.  Microcontrollers through out their history have had a variety of ways to store the programs they run.  Unlike a microprocessor, a microcontroller typically has a fixed, or somewhat fixed, program that it runs.  This program is often referred to as firmware (its not software, as its cant easily be changed, and its not hardware as it isn’t discrete chips, thus firmware).

There are several common ways to store firmware:

  • UV-EPROM: The microcontroller has a UV-EPROM as part of its die (or in some cases separate but on the same package).  This can be programmed using higher voltages, and erased/updated, albeit not in the field.  This was popular in the 80’s for prototyping work.
  • Flash (or EEPROM):  This replaced UV-EPROM program storage as it was update-able in circuit, allowing for such things as user BIOS upgrades, updating firmware on CD/Hard Drives etc.  This has become fairly standard for any firmware that is likely to need to be upgraded in the future.
  • Intel B2616 - Unless you clean the paint off

    Intel B2616 – Unless you clean the paint off

    OTP: One Time Programmable Read Only Memory is useful for medium to large scale production runs.  This allows the code to be ‘burnt’ onto a chip prior to shipping. Often all these were were UV-EPROM chips in a plastic package.  Early Intel’s even used UV-EPROM chips, and simply painted over the window.  a 2708 UV-EPROM became a 2608 PROM with the simple application of some nail polish.  There has been some experimentation and success in erasing/reusing these with the use of X-Rays. (they can penetrate the plastic package).

  • Mask ROM: A Mask ROM is just as it sounds, the program code is actually added to the actual mask itself when making the microcontroller die.  This is the most economical  and reliable for very large production runs.  Obviously one wants to make very sure the code is correct before cutting a mask with it, masks are expensive, and manufacturers are not keen on giving do overs.   In 1978 Intel charged $1000 Mask fee, and a minimum order of 100 units for an 8k ROM (~$10).   By 1986 that Mask fee had risen to $3000 and min units to 1000.

So what happens when 20+ years later you need to figure out whats ON a mask ROM?  The paper tape, 8″ floppy or punch card the program original was stored on is long since gone.  Being that its a mask ROM one can actually SEE the connections, so its possible to decap a device, and visually determine the code, albeit with a lot of tedious work.  Adam Laurie of Aperture Labs developed a Python script to automate some of it, and wrote an article explaining it, which covers some every interesting Mask ROM info.  Not to mention some very nice pictures, so check it out.


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Just For Fun

September 27th, 2012 ~ by admin

EPROM of the Day: AMD AM27C2048 – Shrinking Dies

AMD AM27C2048-150DC – 3 Dies (Click to view larger)

In the semiconductor industry process shrinks are highly sought after.  They result in smaller die sizes for the same part, which results in more chips per wafer, thus increasing revenue.  There are other benefits (typically speed increases and power decreases (aside from leakage)) but from a purely economical stand point, the smaller dies result in more profits.

Rarely do you get to SEE the result of these process changes.  UV-EPROMs fortunately have a window, for erasing them with UV light, that also lets the die be seen.  Here are three AMD AM27C2048 EPROMs.  These are CMOS 2-Mbit EPROM, pretty common in the 1990s.  As you can see that while they are all the same part, the dies are significantly different. While its hard to say for sure without a die analysis, we can make some good estimations based on what foundries AMD had at the time these devices were made.  The first EPROM is date late 1993 which will likely be a 1 micron process.  The second EPROM, dated mid 1997 is a bit smaller, around 20% smaller, which fits with AMD’s 0.8 micron fabs.  The last, and latest, EPROM was made in 1998, likely at the joint AMD-Fujitsu (FASL) plant in Japan.  This would mean it is a 0.5 micron device. The plant was transitioning to 0.35 micron at the time, but that was most likely used for the higher profit Flash memory devices.  By 1998 EPROM’s were on the decline.

Also of note is the different copyrights.  The first two are copyright 1989 while the third is 1997.  Its hard to know for sure (I do not have the microscopes/tools needed to do die analysis) but it is likely the 1 micron to 0.8 micron was an optical shrink. Literally this means that the die (and masks) are scaled down to a new smaller process with no architectural changes.  This is simple and inexpensive.  Sometimes changes will have to be made to support a new process, or make full use of its benefits, so a new layout/masks are made.  This is likely the case with the 1997 copyrighted EPROM.  The design was altered to work with the new, smaller process, and it was significant enough to warrant a new copyright.


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EPROM of the Day

April 29th, 2011 ~ by admin

EPROM of the Day: Intel D87C75PF The 8755 gets a boost

Intel C8755A - 1977

When Intel released the 8755 in 1976 and 8755A in 1977 it provided an easy way to interface the 8080 and the 8085 to other components. It was a 16k (2kx8) EPROM with a pair of latched 8 bit I/O ports.  This greatly reduced system chip counts and complexity of board design. The basic 8755A ran at 3Mhz (the later 8755A-2 ran at 5MHz) which allowed interfacing with the 8085AH with zero wait states. The 8755A continued to be used well into the 1980s with many processors (Intel and others)

Intel D87C75PF - 1988 Engineering Sample

By 1988 the 8755A was out of date, its 16k of EPROM space was insufficient for most designs and its power consumption was much higher then contemporary parts. Intel sought to remedy this with the release of the 87C75.  The 87C75 is essnetially a 27C256 EPROM, and 82C55A port expander, and latches combined on a single chip. It was made on Intel CHMOSII-E process which reduced power consumption (from 1.5Watts to 500mW). It ran at a max of 5MHz and the EPROM was bumped up from 16k to 256k. It was designed to interface direction to the 8051, MCS-96 and i188 processors.

Why then do we find so few examples of the 87C75PF?  The late 80’s and early 90’s also ushered in dozens of microcontrollers and embedded processors that had all of the 87C75’s features on chip; larger EPROM on die, more I/O ports, and the widespread use of Flash on microcontrollers effectively made the 87C75PF obsolete.

June 8th, 2010 ~ by admin

Unlocking EPROM cores?

Its well known that manufacturers such as Intel and AMD will sell quad cores as dual cores, or 6-cores as quad-cores in order to meet demand, or to use dies that didn’t ‘make the cut.’ This process has been going on for over 30 years though. Back in the 70’s and 80’s it was very common for a device such as this:

Intel D2704 4k EPROM

Which is a 2704 4k EPROM, to actually be made from a 2708 die, just with not all the leads connected, or sometimes, with them connected but just labeled as the smaller part. In a production environment, it is cheaper to have a single production line making dies that can be used in more then one device, then having an entire seperate production line just to make a product that may not be the most popular.  Look at this die shot (its a bit blurry) but you can see its a 2708 die.

2704 with 2708 die

Once again, whats new, really isn’t we have just went from small EPROMs, to CPUs with billions of transistors

February 11th, 2009 ~ by admin

EPROM of the Week: Electronic Arrays – EA2708

Electronic Arrays was born in the late 60’s back in the time of many start-ups (which mostly trace their roots back to Fairchild)  EA attempted to make a CPU called the EA9002, but production problems kept them from going anywhere with it.  They made EPROM’s likely to keep them afloat (and only 8k ones at that).


Electronic Arrays 2708

Electronic Arrays 2708

This EPROM was made in early 1977, less then a year later EA was bought out by NEC, now a world leader in electronics.


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EPROM of the Day