March 17th, 2015 ~ by admin
MCS-4 Test Boards
The MCS-4/40 Test boards are now back in stock and shipping this week. Only have a few available so head on over to the MCS-4 page to order yours.
I also added a PDF of the boards schematic to make interfacing to it easier for any projects you may have in mind.
If you do have a project in mind, or already made one, post about it in the comments, we’d love to see/hear about it.
March 11th, 2015 ~ by admin
Pagetable.com has in interesting post about emulators, specifically one created in 1978 to run Intel 8080 code on a 6502. While emulators today are fairly common, such as running Nintendo (6502) games on a PC, or In Circuit Emulators for development, an 8-bit cross architecture emulator is certainly different. Especially since the 8080 and 6502 were so vastly differing. Certainly a useful tool for teaching oneself a new architecture, and as they were coming out rather rapidly in the 1970’s knowing more then one was a worthy investment.
Todays equivalent perhaps would be emulating a PIC on a 8051. Perhaps someone will give it a try?
March 6th, 2015 ~ by admin
Dawn’s mission: Ceres
Dawn was launched in 2007 by NASA/JPL and was built by Orbital Sciences becoming their first interplanetary spacecraft. Dawns mission was to visit the two largest dwarf planets in the Asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres. After visiting Vesta for over a year in 2011-2012 Dawn used its ion engines to break orbit, and travel to Ceres, a journey of 2.5 years.
In the next few hours Dawn will be captured by Ceres gravity and begin orbiting it. These protoplanets, are very interesting scientifically as they provide a look into our solar systems past. Dawn will orbit Ceres for several years and perhaps discover what the mysterious bright spots are, among other things. Studying a planet, even a dwarf planet, requires processing power, and for that Dawn is well equipped.
Dawn is solar powered, so power budgets are of great concern. At 3AU (three times further from the sun then Earth) Dawns solar panels are rates at about 1300 Watts. This has to run all the science experiments, the main computers, the comms, and most importantly the electric ion engine, which uses electricity generated from the panels to excite and eject Xenon gas at very high velocities. Thus, power consumption is more important then raw processor power here, especially for the systems that are on most of the time.
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March 1st, 2015 ~ by admin
DEC 78032 DC333R MicroVAX II – 5MHz
DEC’s 32-bit VAX architecture saw many implementations since its introduction in 1977. Early implementations were all multi-chip, but as technology improved the VAX architecture could be implemented (at least partially) on a single VLSI chip. The first implementation on a single chip was the MicroVAX II released in 1985. It contained 125,000 transistors, made on a 3 micron NMOS (DEC proprietary ‘ZMOS’) process and ran at 5MHz (200ns cycle time).
In 1987 DEC released the CVAX, the second generation VAX on VLSI. The CVAX was made on DEC’s first CMOS process, a 2 micron design using 175,000 transistors and clocked from 10-12.5 MHz (80-10ns cycle time). The input clock was a four-phase overlapping clock (so input frequency was 4x the cycle time, or 40-50MHz). Performance was 2.5-3 times better then the MicroVAX II. About half the gain was from process improvement (increased clock speed), while the rest was from architectural changes (mainly pipelining).
DEC DC580C 78034 CVAX+ 16.67MHz
As the CVAX (and its successor the CVAX+) were released the next generation was already being designed by DEC. This was to be Rigel. Rigel has a 6-stage pipeline, and was made on a 2 micron CMOS process and the CPU contained 320,000 transistors, 140k of which were for logic, while the remaining 180k were for memory (cache). The separate FPU chip contained an additional 135,000 transistors. After some early teething pains on the new CMOS process, where yields were almost non-existent, the process finally was refined enough to make commercial samples by late 1988. The target speed for Rigel was a 40ns cycle (25 MHz clock). This would give the Rigel a 6-8x performance gain over CVAX. 2X of this was from the process shrink (and doubling of clock speed) while 3X was from the improved pipelining. The remainder was due to increased memory performance, not the least of which was due to Rigels 2KB of on chip cache.
Rigel, however, had other plans…
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February 22nd, 2015 ~ by admin
NEC SX-ACE Processor Prototype – 2013
When Vector computing is mentioned, the first company that comes to mind is Cray. Cray was the leading designer and builder of vector supercomputers since the 1970’s. Vector computing is a bit different then general purpose computing. Simply put, a vector computer is designed to perform an instruction on a large set of data at the same time. Such vector support has been added to x86 (in the form of SSE) as well as the PowerPC architecture (AltiVec) but they were not originally designed as such. Cray however, is not the only such company. In 1983 NEC announced the SX architecture. The SX-1/2 operated at up to 1.3 GFLOPs and supported 256MB of RAM per processor. By 2001 with the SX-5 and SX-6 performance had increased to 8 GFLOPS and supported 8GB of RAM per CPU. For a short while Cray themselves marketed and sold NEC SX computers. Each of the processors, from SX-1 to the SX-9 was a single core processor, but with the SX-ACE, that changed.
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February 15th, 2015 ~ by admin
Z80 Expansion Board
Now available at The CPU Shack are the Z80 and i8085 Expansion boards for the MCS-80 test boards. The i8085 and Z80 expansion tools allow the MCS-80 test-board to test the function of Intel 8085 (and compatible) or Z80 (and compatible) CPUs. The test tools are connected via the ZIF socket for the i8080 CPU and into the 3×16 pin header connectors of the MCS-80 test-board. There is no need to modify or replace anything on MCS-80 test-board.
This is possible because both the Z80 and i8085 CPUs are based on the Intel 8080 processor. The 8085 is nearly the same as the 8080 from a software point of view, Intel just greatly simplified the hardware required to support it.
They are currently available for $29.95 each shipped.
February 13th, 2015 ~ by admin
TI RAY9000C-X – SBR9000 Radiation Tolerant Processor
In the previous post the TI TMS/SBP9900 was covered, as well as its successor the SBP9989. The 9989 was to be replaced by the 9989E, a 50% shrink to 2.2u. This was never released, but TI did continue to develop the bipolar line of the 9900s. After canceling (or perhaps just renaming?) the 9989E/9990 TI announced the SBR9000 in 1985. The SBR9000 was a hi-speed 9989 successor fab’d on a 2 micron I2L process and clocked at 9MHz (twice the speed of the 9989). The change in prefix from SBP to SBR hints at another feature, while the SBP9989 was a MIL-STD-883 rated part, the SBR9000 (and its peripherals) were designed for very high radiation tolerance. The SBR9000 was spec’d to have a total dose tolerance of 1 MegaRad (it should be noted that around 10 krads proves fatal to the average person).
The part number of this example, RAY9000C-X is a bit mysterious but there are some strong clues as to its being a prototype of the canceled SBR9000. First of course is the 64-pin CDIP package, conveniently having 4 ground pins marked. Pins 1,2,27 and 28 are the ground pins on all SBP9900/9989 devices. The SBR was to be pin compatible so has the same ground pins. The date on the back of the RAY9000 is 8525, the SBP9900 was out of production in 1983 so that rules it out, leaving either a 9989, or the most likely, a sample of a SBR9000. Why TI canceled the SBR9000 remains a mystery, perhaps they found the 9989 to be adequate for their customers needs, as it continued to be produced into the 1990’s.
February 5th, 2015 ~ by admin
TI TMS9900JL – 1978
In June 1976 TI released the TMS9900 16-bit processor. This was one of the very first 16-bit single chip processor designs, though it took a while to catch on. This is no fault of its own, but rather TI’s failure to market it as such. The 9900 is a single chip implementation of the TI 990 series mini-computers. It was meant to be a low end product and thus was not particularly well supported by TI, who did not want to cut into the higher margins of their mini-computer line. By the late 1970’s TI began to see the possibilities of the 9900 as a general purpose processor and began supporting it with development systems, support chips, and better documentation. If TI had marketed and supported the 9900 from its release the microprocessor market very much may have turned out a bit different. A large portion of Intel’s success (with the 808x) was not due to a good design, but rather good support and availability.
The original TMS9900 was a 3100 gate (approx 8000 transistors) NMOS design running at up to 3MHz. It required a 4-phase clock and 3 power supplies (5V, 12V, -5V). It had a very orthogonal instruction set that was very memory focused, making it rather easy to program. General purpose registers were stored off chip, with only a PC, Workspace Register (which pointed to wherever the general registers would be) and a Status Register on chip. This made context switching fairly quick and easy. A context switch required saving only 2-3 registers. The 9900 was packaged in a, then uncommon, and expensive, 64 pin DIP. This allowed the full 15-bits of address and 16-bits of data bus to be available.
TI had a trick up their sleeve for the 9900 line…
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January 27th, 2015 ~ by admin
MCS-4 Test Boards
The CPU Shack is excited to now offer MCS-4 test boards for sale and shipping now. These boards are intended to test Intel 4004 and 4040 processors as well as 4002 RAMs. They can also test National Semiconductor 4004s and 4002s.
Each board runs off of a min-USB connector making it very easy to use. The processors are inserted into easy to use ZIF sockets making testing many different CPUs a snap. I
Head on over to the MCS-4 page to buy yours today!
January 18th, 2015 ~ by admin
Hua Ko CMOS 6502 – 4Mhz Industrial Temp – Direct copy from GTE Micro
Hua Ko Electronics was started in 1979 in Hong Kong, though with close ties to the PRC. Their story is a bit more interesting then their products, which were largely second sources of western designs. In 1980 they started a subsidiary in San Jose, CA. This was a design services center mainly ran as a foundry for other companies. They developed mask sets in their CA facility but wafer fab and most assembly was done back in Hong Kong (as well as the Philippines by 1984). Chipex also had a side business, they were illegally copying clients designs and sending them back to the PRC. In addition they were sending proprietary (and restricted) equipment back to Hong Kong and the PRC. in 1982 their San Jose facilities were raided and equipment seized. Several employees were arrested and later charged and convicted. The following investigation showed that the PRC consulate had provided support and guidance for Chipex’s operations and illegal activities. So where exactly did the HKE65SC02 design come from?
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